Table 1. Parameters for advanced (v = 0.01 c) and solarsail (v = 5E4 c) microbial swarm missions to nearby stars and to the Rho Ophiuchus cloud.

d
(ly)a 
r (m)b 
Dy (m)c v (c) 0.01 5E4 
Nearby Stars 

Alpha PsA 
22.6 
5.0E11 
2.3E10 4.6E11 
Beta Pic 
52.8 
1.3E12 
1.3E11 2.5E12 
Rho Ophiuchus Cloud 

Dense Fragment 
520 
3E16 
1.2E13 2.4E14 
Protostellar 
520 
3E14 
“ “ 
Early Accretion
Disk 
520 
1.5E13 
“ “ 
Late Accretion
Disk 
520 
2.6E12 
“ “ 
Young Stellar Object 
520 
5.3E11 
“ “ 

d Ptarget v (c) 0.01 5E4 
e Pplanet v (c) 0.01 5E4 
m (kg)f v (c) 0.01 5E4 
Nearby Stars 

Alpha PsA 
(4.7E2)
(1.2E0) 
1E5 1.1E5 
1.1E3
1.1E3 
Beta Pic 
(1.0E2)
2.7E1 
1E5 2.5E6 
1.1E3
4.5E3 
Rho Ophiuchus Cloud 

Dense Core 
(6.3E6)
(1.6E4) 
1E16 1E16 
1.1E8g 1.1E8g 
Protostellar 
(6.3E2)
(1.6E0) 
1E13 1E13 
1.1E5 1.1E5 
Early 
(1.6E0)
3.9E3 
1E11 3.9E14 
1.1E3 2.8E5 
Late Accretion 
4.7E2 1.2E4 
1.5E11
3.8E14 
7.5E2 2.9E5 
Young Stellar 
1.9E3 4.9E6 
1.9E8
4.9E11 
5.8E1 2.2E2 
b. Radius of the target objects. For planets, the radius of a circle with an area equal to that of
the habitable zone i.e., r = 0.89rhz. alpha PsA and Beta Pic, rhz from ref. 5, for 1 solar mass
young stellar object, rhz = 1 au. For the late accretion disk, radius of a circle with an area equal
to a disk from 10 to 20 au.
c. Uncertainty in target position at arrival, from equation (1).
d. Probability of arrival within the target zone, from r2/(dy)2. For values of P > 1, shown in
parentheses, the arrival probability is approximately unity.
e. Probability of capture by a planet in the habitable zone, obtained from Ptarget x Pcapture. For
targeted planets, Pcapture = 1E5; for other targeted objects, see text.
f. Launched biomass necessary for the capture of 100 capsules of 1.1E10 kg at the target
planet, calculated from 1.1E8/Pplanet.
g. Mass requirements per planetary system. Note this mission requires launching 100 times
the given masses, for distribution through the cloud.